Harry Pine Andrews
Harry Pine Andrews was not born in Dartmouth but came to the town during his naval career, and was elected a town councillor. He is included on our database because his death in service was reported in the Dartmouth Chronicle, together with an account of his life and career.
Harry Pine Andrews was born on 25th March 1860 in Saltash, Cornwall, and baptised at the church of St Nicholas and St Faith on 15th April 1860. He was the youngest son of William Andrews and his wife Elizabeth Pine, both of whom had been born in Saltash.
Saltash, on the western side of the river Tamar, at the foot of Brunel's Royal Albert Bridge, was described by its Mayor in 1893 as "an unrivalled nursery for the Navy", and so it proved in the case of Harry's family. Harry's father William joined the Navy and was followed into the service by all three of his surviving sons and three of his grandchildren. Between them, William and Harry spanned the transition of the Navy from wooden sailing ships to iron and steam, and its gradual evolution towards a planned and managed professional service at all levels. William's experiences in the Navy are likely to have had a significant impact in shaping Harry's early life, and so William's career is described first.
William Andrews joined the Navy in 1834 as a Boy 1st Class, three weeks short of his sixteenth birthday. If he wanted to see the world, he succeeded, for his first ship, HMS Volage, took him to the Mediterranean, and his second, HMS President, took him to the Pacific and South America. Shortly after leaving President, in 1842 he married Elizabeth Pine, second daughter of James Pine, painter, and his wife Mary Mutton, of Saltash. Elizabeth (or Betsy, as she was sometimes called), aged 25, was working for her living, one of several servants in a boarding school in Fore Street, Saltash. Their first child, John, was born in April the following year.
At this time there was still no guarantee of continuous employment in the Navy - men were paid off at the end of each commission. Whether by design or luck, William was able to secure a ship close to home for the next three years - HMS Caledonia, a 120 gun three deck sailing ship, launched in 1808, the flagship of Sir David Milne, Commander in Chief Plymouth.
In 1845 he found his next job on HMS Seagull, a 6 gun schooner commissioned for the Packet service, taking mails back and forth from Falmouth to Madeira, Tenerife, Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, and this was his life for four years. Evidently he found some time to go home to Saltash between trips, because his second son Richard was born in July 1849. A few months earlier, William had moved from Seagull to Kestrel, a brigantine yacht which had previously belonged to Lord Yarborough, the founder of the Royal Yacht Squadron, and which was then operating off the South American coast. Her term of service was due to end in Devonport the following year. When she got home her condition was assessed as too poor to continue in service, and she was sold off.
From September 1850 William was employed on land, in Devonport Dockyard, as a "seaman rigger", loading and unloading ships, undertaking repair of rigging and other rope, and doing other general work as required. Two years earlier the Navy had introduced a scheme enabling the retention of a reserve of competent and experienced seamen for an emergency, by offering them periods of employment in Dockyards. This was open to Ordinary and Able Seamen who had served for not less than six years and whose conduct had been satisfactory, on recommendation from the captain of the ship they were leaving. Their service was considered as sea time and would be allowed to count for pension (if a pension was awarded). During William's time at the Dockyard, the family continued to live in Saltash. They were recorded in Fore Street in the 1851 Census, lodging in the house of another ex-Naval seaman, Thomas Gould.
Regulations limited the Dockyard opportunity to eighteen months, so from April 1852 William was forced to look elsewhere. In May he signed on as Able Seaman in HMS Buzzard, a six gun wooden paddle sloop on her first commission, for the North America and West Indies station, under Commander William Dobbie; on 9th January 1853, while on Buzzard, he was rated "Captain Main Top" - in effect the leading seaman on the "main top" station, on a given watch.
During 1853 Buzzard was in the Caribbean Sea, employed on a varied range of tasks. (Her day to day activities may be viewed on the "William Loney RN" website, for during this time her Assistant Surgeon was Edward Loney, William Loney's brother). Over Christmas and New Year 1853/54 Buzzard was in Port Royal, Jamaica, and on 10th January 1854 William Andrews signed a new "continuous service engagement". Continuous service was introduced for ratings by the Navy in 1853, to attempt to solve the continuing manning problem.
William, who by this stage had served a total of just under seventeen years, agreed to complete twenty years service, and by doing so, guaranteed himself a Naval pension, and security of employment for the next three years. Those certifying him as fit were Commander Dobbie and two medical officers, Edward Loney and W H Carter. The record says he was 5ft 5ins tall, with a dark complexion, dark brown hair and blue eyes, with no marks. He was certified "of perfectly sound and healthy constitution, free from all physical malformation, active and intelligent ... and in all respects fit for Her Majesty's service". William signed with a cross - evidently he was unable to write.
William appears to have left Buzzard shortly after this, when she was next in Port Royal, and to have returned to England, for his next ship (from March 1854) was HMS Nile, which was commissioning in Devonport due to the outbreak of the Crimean War. While he had been away in the West Indies, Elizabeth had another baby, Thomas Nicholas, baptised in Saltash in March 1853. The child does not appear to have survived.
Nile was a 90 gun sailing ship which had just been converted to screw propulsion. She was part of a fleet sent in April 1854 to the Baltic, to blockade Russian ports and prevent the Russian Baltic Fleet from providing assistance to Russian forces in the Crimea. By 1st January 1856 she was back in harbour in Plymouth, refitting for continuing operations in the spring. Evidently the crew were given leave, for towards the end of the year William and Elizabeth had their fourth child, James Henry Andrews, baptised in Saltash in November 1856. He also did not survive infancy, dying the following year.
The Nile left Plymouth in late February 1856 to join the rest of the Baltic fleet assembling at Portsmouth. It was originally intended that the fleet should be ready to sail on 1st March, but by the time peace negotiations had started only a small number had already sailed. It was decided instead to hold a "Great Naval Review" at Spithead to celebrate the end of the war, and this took place on 23rd April 1856 - St George's Day. The Nile was second in one of the two lines of warships and gunboats, and images show the ships with all flags flying and men manning the yards - this must have been a memorable experience for William.
HMS Nile was then sent to North America, arriving in Halifax, Nova Scotia (which would be highly significant in Harry's later career) in August, and then proceeding to the West Indies. By April 1857 she and William were back in Plymouth. He completed his twenty years of service with two short assignments on HMS Vesuvius, another six gun wooden paddle sloop, and HMS Industry, his first iron-built ship, which together provided him with a round trip back to the UK by way of Ascension Island.
However, this was not the end of his naval service. After a gap of around eighteen months, he was re-engaged for an appointment on HMS Wellington, a 74 gun wooden sailing ship, launched in 1816, by this stage in use as a guard ship for vessels laid up in Plymouth. He served on her as a Able Seaman for just over a year from May 1859 to May 1860, finally leaving the Navy for good after 21 years and 278 days service, just before his 42nd birthday. Harry, his youngest son, had been born a few months earlier. Successive Census records describe William as a "Greenwich pensioner", suggesting that his Naval pension formed most, if not all, of the family income from then on. He and Elizabeth lived in Saltash until Elizabeth died in 1901.
Just as William came home permanently from life at sea, his elder sons left to go to sea - most probably a coincidence of timing, but Elizabeth may perhaps have reflected ruefully on the lot of wives and mothers of men in the Navy. John, the eldest, had joined in May 1859, aged sixteen; Richard joined in August 1863, aged fourteen. Harry was therefore at home on his own with Elizabeth and William during most of his early childhood.
It would seem that Harry showed early promise, and that William and Elizabeth decided to find some way, despite their limited resources, in which he could be given educational advantage, for in the 1871 Census, aged 11, Harry is recorded as a pupil at Greenwich Hospital School. Their decision to send him to Greenwich in effect determined the rest of his life. It also enabled him to attain a social standing far beyond their own.
Greenwich Hospital School was founded in 1712 to provide assistance and education to the children of those who had died or had been disabled while serving in the Navy. Starting with ten boys, numbers had gradually increased to around 200 by 1803. In 1821 the school had incorporated another similar institution, the Royal Naval Asylum, which provided for both boys and girls. Gradually, however, the school had departed from its original intention, and (in the words of a review of educational establishments by George C T Bartley, published in 1871): "so far from being a Charity School professing to bestow a limited education on the children of pensioners and poor seamen, the ... education [became] the object of desire for the children of parents of higher social position".
From 1870, following a review, new admission criteria were put in place, to attempt to bring the school closer to the original charitable purpose, and the education offered there was also reviewed. Boys admitted had to be the sons of petty officers and seamen, and non-commissioned officers and privates of marines, who had served, or were serving at the time of admission, in the Royal Navy, the Coast Guard, the Royal Naval Reserve, or of other seafaring persons. Applications were taken in order of precedence:
- Orphans ie both parents being dead
- Sons of seamen killed or wounded while in the service
- Sons whose fathers had been in the service and who had died subsequently
- Sons of Naval pensioners and of seamen and marines still serving, both of whose parents were living
- Sons of seamen and marines not included in the previous categories
- Sons of other seafaring persons
Officers' children were not therefore excluded per se. The length of time a parent had served was particularly taken into account.
Harry fell in category 4, but evidently, though some way down the queue, was able to be admitted. When he joined is not known, but (according to Bartley) entry to the Lower Division of the school, following the review, was from 10 to 10¼ years, so it is likely that he had arrived at the school only a little while before he was recorded there in the Census. Boys had to be physically fit for sea service, able to read an easy sentence, and possess a knowledge of the first four rules of Arithmetic. The course of instruction in the Lower Division was "a sound English education", including English History, Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic, combined with "industrial occupation" - mending and making their own clothes, cleaning the school, and assisting in all the domestic duties.
Children could leave from the Lower Division at thirteen for any occupation (this changed a little later); but those undertaking to enter the Royal Navy entered the Upper Division, where the course of study was divided between "ordinary book work", to a more advanced level, and "those duties specially bearing on a sailor's calling". For this purpose there was a ship built on the premises, and boats also provided for use on the river. Provided they achieved the necessary standards, at 15 ½ the boys entered the Navy, in whatever capacity was considered appropriate.
Amongst the Naval career options open to boys from Greenwich was that of Writer. The Naval rating of Writer had been established in 1867, and in 1873, while Harry was at Greenwich, a scheme was established for Boy Writers. Boy Writers were to be selected principally from Greenwich School, where they were to be trained for the Navy and entered for continuous service. Their pay on entry was to be 1s per day. Their advancement would be as follows:
|At 18||3rd Class Writer||Able Seaman||2s per day|
|After 5 years service||2nd Class Writer||2nd Class Petty Officer||3s per day|
|After a further 5 years service||1st Class Writer||Chief Petty Officer||5s per day|
Their uniform was to be a blue jacket and waistcoat, with black anchor buttons and cloth or white trousers as directed; white or check shirt, blue cloth cap with peak, and plain mohair band, without device. On becoming 2nd Class Writers, they were to have gilt Naval buttons; and on becoming 1st Class Writers, they were to wear the same uniform as Naval Schoolmasters - a single breasted blue frock coat, with gilt Naval buttons, and a blue cloth jacket, with the same cap as before. They were employed under the direction of the Paymaster, and messed with Naval Schoolmasters.
Whether it was Harry's choice, or the Navy's, he became a Writer. He entered the Navy on his fifteenth birthday on 21st March 1875 as a Boy Writer. His Naval service record says he was 4ft 11ins tall, with brown hair, blue eyes (like his father's) and a fair complexion. By the time he was 18, he had grown five inches, and twenty years later, another two.
Writers of any age began their career at the three Home Ports of Sheerness, Portsmouth and Devonport, borne on the flagship to learn their jobs. Harry joined HMS Duncan at Sheerness, the flagship of Commander in Chief The Nore. He remained there for five years, becoming a 3rd Class Writer as he passed his eighteenth birthday. His next appointment was nearer home, to Royal Adelaide, the flagship of the Port Admiral Devonport, though he also spent some time with the Coastguard Service, including two months in Greenock.
His first posting to sea was to HMS Arab, a four gun steam-powered gunboat. She was "composite"- built, with an iron-framed hull but planked in wood, and also had a sailing rig. In early 1881, after a refit in Plymouth, she was bound for the East Indies Station, travelling through the Mediterranean, Suez Canal, and the Red Sea. While on Arab, Harry became a 2nd Class Writer on his 23rd birthday, on 25th March 1883.
He also earned his first medal, for during his time on the East Indies Station, the ship was involved in action in the Eastern Sudan in 1884. The Mahdist Rebellion against the Egyptian government of the Sudan had spread to Eastern Sudan in 1883. Britain was at that time closely involved in the government and administration of Egypt, was providing assistance against the rebellion, and was concerned about the possible threat to Red Sea ports and the security of the all-important route to India. The Navy was instructed to hold the Red Sea port city of Sawakin (or Suakin as Harry would have known it) on behalf of the Egyptian government, and three British battalions were sent to relieve Egyptian army garrisons in Eastern Sudan being beseiged by Mahdist rebels. HMS Arab was involved in the defence of the port during this campaign, and for her contribution, all her company, including Harry, was awarded the Soudan Medal (sic) 1884.
In 1885 Harry returned to England and, even better, to Saltash, being appointed to HMS Defiance. Defiance was the last wooden line of battle ship launched for the Navy, in 1861, but she never saw service at sea. On 26th November 1884 she became the Devonport torpedo and mining schoolship, being moored permanently at Wearde, Saltash.
While serving on, or in, Defiance, Harry duly became 1st Class Writer, on 22nd March 1888, his 28th birthday, and that year was awarded a long service and good conduct medal - indeed, his record shows that every year of his entire naval service was either "exemplary" or "very good". Further cause for celebration that year was his marriage. On 18th October, in Saltash, he married Eliza Pearce, the second of four daughters of Richard Pearce and his wife Grace Meager. Eliza had been born and brought up in Saltash, where Richard Pearce and his wife Grace ran a bakery and confectionery shop in Fore Street. Their four daughters all worked in the shop, and Harry must have known the whole family well.
Harry and Eliza settled in Saltash, at 2 Sea View Terrace. Their first child, Harry Richard Pearce Andrews, was born on 15th March 1889, a week off Harry's own birthday. On 1st July 1889, Harry attained the rank of Chief Writer. Higher than this, he could not go, for Warrant Officer rank was not extended to the Writer Branch until 1915.
Around Harry and Eliza in Saltash were other members of their families. As well as Harry's parents William and Elizabeth at 36 Fore Street, and Eliza's parents Richard and Grace Pearce at 103 Fore Street, Harry's elder brother Richard and his wife Ann ran the Town Hall Inn at 37 Fore Street, Richard having by then retired from the Navy. Harry's eldest brother John had died, but his widow Laura, and their two sons Edwin John and Harry Alfred Andrews, lived at 41 Fore Street. Both joined the Navy.
Harry's second child and first daughter, Gladys May Andrews, was born a little over a year after his son, on 19th May 1890. However, Harry was able to spend very little time with the new baby, for his appointment at HMS Defiance came to an end only a few days later. On 28th May 1890, he was appointed to HMS Himalaya, a troopship, on which he served as Chief Writer until April 1894. The Himalaya sailed back and forth between Britain (Portsmouth or Plymouth) and anywhere British troops were needed. During 1893/4, for example, she travelled between Britain and the Mediterranean, South Africa, and the Far East.
Towards the end of Harry's appointment, the Portsmouth Evening News reported on 25th January 1894 that:
It is probable that the famous old troopship Himalaya, now on a voyage to China ... will soon terminate her career as a trooper. The Admiralty have instructed the Dockyard officials at Devonport to make a close and careful examination of the vessels hull and machinery immediately on her return to England and report how long in their opinion she is likely to continue to run safely on foreigh trooping service... The Himlaya is quite an historic vessel. She is the oldest, and has proved herself by far the most valuable of all our troopships. She was purchased by the Government from Messrs Mare so long ago as 1854 for the sum of £130,000, and since then close upon half a million of money has been spent upon her for maintenance and repairs; indeed, it is frequently asserted that so often has she been altered and repaired that not a single stick of the original ship remains.
(Himalaya became, rather ignominiously after her long service, a coal hulk in Portland Harbour. On 12th June 1940 she was sunk by German bombs).
While on Himalaya, Harry served for the first time under Sir Edward Chichester, then Captain, later Rear Admiral, and a popular "Devonshire character". It was said that the appointment to Himalaya had been Sir Edward's reward for the action he took in a storm to man a boat with a scratch crew to row out to a gunboat, the Banterer, which was in danger of running onto sandbanks in Bideford estuary, and take her safely into harbour at Appledore.
The old ship had gone into (yet another) refit in Devonport between May and October 1893, enabling Harry to spend time at home in Saltash. His third child and second daughter, Lilian Adele, was born on 16th August 1894, but lived only a very short time. He must never have seen her, for before she was born, he was appointed on 17th April 1894 to the cruiser HMS Undaunted, which, following a refit in Devonport, left Plymouth for Japan and China on 1st May 1894. Harry came home in 1897 after three years in the Far East, during which he once again served alongside Sir Edward Chichester, who had been appointed during the same period to captain HMS Immortalite on the China Station.
Harry's next appointment was less glamorous than China and the Far East but had the attraction of being close once again to the family in Saltash. He was appointed in September 1897 to the Keyham Torpedo Store, in Devonport, and remained there for a little over two years. A year earlier, in March 1898, he had completed twenty years continuous service, but clearly civilian life had no attractions for him, notwithstanding the demands of the service on family life. He re-engaged to serve as a Chief Writer for a further five years.
On 11th December 1899, Harry was once again involved in an active campaign. He was appointed to HMS Doris, the flagship on the Cape Station in South Africa. The Second Boer War had broken out two months earlier and the men of HMS Doris had already become directly involved in the fighting, contributing themselves and their guns in support of the Army, whose artillery, at this early stage in the conflict, was inadequate.
Harry was appointed to successive flagships and other ships on the Cape Station between December 1899 and October 1902, while serving in the Transport Office, presumably building on his experience in HMS Himalaya. Indeed, for the first twelve months of his time in South Africa, he was serving once again under Sir Edward Chichester, who was the Chief Naval Transport Officer at Cape Town. Men, horses, mules, guns, and supplies of every kind poured into the docks in preparation for the relief of the beseiged garrisons at Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley and to meet the challenge of securing a lasting victory over the Boers. Sir Edward went home in November 1900, but Harry remained at the Cape until the end of the war in 1902, returning to England in October of that year.
For his service in South Africa he received both the Queen's and King's South Africa Medals; the Queen's South Africa Medal was awarded to all those who served between 11th October 1899 and 31st May 1902; and the King's South Africa Medal to all those who had completed eighteen months service in South Africa between 1st January 1901 and 1st June 1902.
At home in Saltash, Harry's mother Elizabeth had died in 1901, and Harry's brother Richard had also been widowed. From now on, Harry's household included not only his wife and children, but also his father William and brother Richard. All moved to Dartmouth, when Harry was appointed as Chief Writer to HMS Britannia on 13th January 1903. He served on Britannia and then in the new College until 27th November 1909, and so lived in the town for six years. Notes on his naval record show that his service was extended once again for five years to 1908, and that he was to be allowed to reengage again to serve until he was 55.
Harry's father William died in Dartmouth in 1903, and in 1908 Harry attended the funeral of Sir Edward Chichester, a large occasion with full naval honours in Plymouth and Sherwill, near Barnstaple, the location of Sir Edward's family seat.
Other than these bereavements, life in Dartmouth seems to have offered Harry a diverting range of amusements and occupations, as well as his official work. In 1908, for example, he competed in the Regatta, in a handicap race for motor launches under 24ft, in a boat called Gladys, evidently named for his daughter, and came third. He competed in the same event in 1909, this time against (amongst others) Engineer Commander Charles Gerald Taylor, who is also on our database (the newspaper report is unclear who won). He represented the Navy at the annual supper of the staff of the Kingswear and Dartmouth Great Western Railway; and in 1908, was elected to Dartmouth Town Council. The Western Times reported that he was one of three candidates forming a "Blue Card", who stood against four candidates forming a "Red Card", the issue dividing them being, apparently, "non political", to do with town finance. He and his "Blue Card" colleagues came first, second and third in the poll (there were four seats available).
But Harry's nascent career in local politics in Dartmouth was brought to an end by another career opportunity opening up in Canada. After considerable debate and controversy, the Dominion Government of Canada had decided to set up its own Navy. The Naval Service Bill received formally assent on 4th May 1910, but on Harry's record a note states that his release for Canadian naval service was approved on 8th November 1909.
The Royal Navy Dockyards in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Esquimault, British Columbia, had already been passed to the Canadian government. Two cruisers, HMS Niobe and HMS Rainbow, were bought from the Admiralty, and a naval college for officer training was established in the former naval hospital at the northern end of Halifax Dockyard. As the Canadian Navy had no senior officers and ratings of its own, the Royal Navy assisted the infant service by providing such personnel through loan agreements. Individuals were paid by the Dominion Government at Canadian rates but their service counted as service in the Royal Navy. With his experience of Britannia Royal Naval College, and indeed his many years of naval service, Harry went to help set up the new Royal Naval College of Canada. The details for him on the database at Library and Archives Canada show his position in the Canadian Navy as a "schoolmaster", though his British naval record still shows him during this secondment as Chief Writer.
HMS Niobe was commissioned in the Canadian Navy at Devonport on 6th September 1910 and on 10th October 1910 she left for Halifax, arriving there eleven days later. It is quite likely that Harry went with her. Eliza, Gladys and Harry's brother Richard followed Harry from Dartmouth to Halifax in April 1911 - on Sunday 2nd April the 1911 Census recorded them staying in a boarding house in Victoria Road, Dartmouth. Three days later they boarded the Royal Edward, a Canadian liner, en route for Halifax from Bristol.
Outbreak of War
Harry's naval service record suggests that the loan agreement came to an end on 12th December 1913 and that on that date he left the Royal Navy. It seems that Harry was perhaps intending to stay in Canada - he might have intended to transfer permanently to the Canadian Navy, like several of those who were involved in setting up the college, or he may have intended finally to retire completely. Some time in the summer of 1914 he travelled to England, apparently intending to return to Canada, for he was booked to travel on 31st July on the liner Calgarian, from Liverpool to Quebec. But although his name is included on the passenger list, there is a line drawn through it, suggesting he did not travel.
Instead, with the outbreak of war, he was called back into service in the Royal Navy, on 2nd August 1914, and the family returned to Saltash. According to his obituary in the Dartmouth Chronicle, he was once again appointed to the Naval Transport Department, this time at Southampton. While there, he was taken ill, and so was transferred to the Royal Naval Barracks at Devonport, presumably so he could be nearer home. The Chronicle continued:
He recovered sufficiently to follow his duties for some weeks, but about a fortnight ago he again had to relinquish duty, and this illness proved fatal.
Harry died at Holmwood, Saltash, on 16th February 1915, a few weeks short of his 55th birthday. His naval service record gives the cause of death as "cerebral haemorrhage". He had served the Navy for just short of forty years.
Harry was buried in the churchyard of St Stephens by Saltash, Cornwall, where his grave is marked by a Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstone.
His death was recorded "with much regret" in the Dartmouth Chronicle. His name does not appear on any of the public memorials in Dartmouth, but he is included on the War Memorial in Saltash, which is itself in the grounds of St Nicholas and St Faith Church in Saltash, where Harry was baptised.
Harry's son Harry Richard Pearce Andrews joined the Navy, also as a Writer, and served in the First World War as a Chief Writer and in the Second World War as a Warrant Writer Officer. He continued to live in England.
Shortly after Harry's death, his daughter Gladys married George Puleston Clarke, who had travelled to Canada on HMS Niobe as Engineering Sub-Lieutenant. After the First World War, he joined the Royal Canadian Navy as officer in charge of the dockyard in Esquimault and he, Gladys and their children emigrated to Canada.
Naval Service Records available from National Archives (fee payable to download):
William Andrews ADM 139/82/8154
Harry Pine Andrews ADM 188/97/90598
William Loney RN: Extracts from the log of HMS Buzzard for the period 15 January
History Today article on Crimean War, Baltic Campaign
Schools for the People, containing the History, Development and Present Working of Each Description of English School for the Industrial and Poorer Classes, by George C T Bartley, published Bell and Daldy, London, 1871,
Chapter 25, Greenwich Hospital School for the Orphans of Sailors
Slightly amended arrangements for Greenwich Hospital School were introduced by the Admiralty in 1875
Circular No 14-N, Admiralty 8th March 1873: Boy Writers and Writers in Her Majesty's Ships
Rear Edward Sir Edward Chichester, Bart from Devonshire Characters and Strange Events, by Sabine Baring Gould
Library and Archives Canada: Service Files of the Royal Canadian Navy
See also "Other Resources" including links to online copy of the Official History of the Naval Service of Canada
Information Held on Database
|Rank:||Chief Writer RN|
|Military Unit:||HMS Vivid (for Naval Transport Office)|
|Date of Death:||16 Feb 1915|
|Age at Death:||54|
|Cause of Death:||Disease: Cerebral Haemorrhage|
|Action Resulting in Death:|
|Place of Death:||Holmwood, Saltash, Cornwall|
|Place of Burial:||St Stephens by Saltash, Cornwall|
|Born or Lived in Dartmouth?||Yes|
|On Dartmouth War Memorial?||No|
|On St Saviour's Memorials?||No|
|On St Petrox Memorials?||No|
|On Flavel Church Memorials?||No|
|In Longcross Cemetery?||No|
|In St Clement's Churchyard?||No|
|On a Private Memorial?||No|
|On Another Memorial?||Yes|
|Name of Other Memorial:||Dartmouth Chronicle Obituary, Saltash War Memorial|